Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Algal Biofuels

Algal as a biofuels source are generating considerable interest around the world. Commercialization Algal biofuels are not economical to produce using the technology available today. However, many countries were doing R&D over micro algae cultivation. Microalgae are single-cell, photosynthetic organisms known for their rapid growth and high energy content.

Why Micro algae as Biofuel ?

·                     Much greater productivity than their terrestrial cousins
·                     Non-food resource
·                     Use otherwise non-productive land
·                     Can utilize saline water
·                     Can utilize waste CO2 streams
·                     Can be used in conjunction with waste water treatment
·                     An algal biorefinery could produce oils, protein, and carbohydrates

Myself also cultivated micro algae in the conical flask. Let see few photographs of future biofuel source.

Algae growing conditions must be optimized if you want maximum growth in your system. Here you will find information to help you understand how to create the best algae growing conditions for the strain you have chosen.

Light As with all plants, algae photosynthesize, i.e. they convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from light. As light is the source of energy for this process the intensity, spectral quality and photoperiod need to be considered. Light intensity plays an important role, but the requirements vary greatly with the culture depth and the density of the algal culture: at higher depths and cell concentrations the light intensity must be increased to penetrate through the culture (e.g. 1,000 lux is suitable for some small lab flasks, but 5,000-10,000 might be required for larger volumes). Light may be natural or supplied by fluorescent tubes. Too high light intensity (e.g. direct sun light, small container close to artificial light) may result in photo-inhibition. Also, overheating due to both natural and artificial illumination should be avoided. Fluorescent tubes emitting either in the blue or the red light spectrum should be preferred as these are the most active portions of the light spectrum for photosynthesis. The duration of artificial illumination should be minimum 18 hours of light per day, although cultivated phytoplankton develops normally under constant illumination.

pH The pH range for most cultured algal species is between 7 and 9, with the optimum range being 8.2-8.7. Complete culture collapse due to the disruption of many cellular processes can result from a failure to maintain an acceptable pH. The latter is accomplished by aerating or mixing the culture. In the case of high-density algal culture, the addition of carbon dioxide allows to correct for increased pH, which may reach limiting values of up to pH 9 during algal growth.

Aeration and mixing Mixing is necessary to prevent sedimentation of the algae, to ensure that all cells of the population are equally exposed to the light and nutrients, to avoid thermal stratification (e.g. in outdoor cultures) and to improve gas exchange between the culture medium and the air. The latter is of primary importance as the air contains the carbon source for photosynthesis in the form of carbon dioxide. For very dense cultures, the CO2 originating from the air (containing 0.03% CO2) bubbled through the culture is limiting the algal growth and pure carbon dioxide may be supplemented to the air supply (e.g. at a rate of 1% of the volume of air). CO2 addition furthermore buffers the water against pH changes as a result of the CO2/HCO3- balance. Depending on the scale of the culture system, mixing is achieved by stirring daily by hand (test tubes, erlenmeyers), aerating (bags, tanks), or using paddle wheels and jetpumps (ponds). However, it should be noted that not all algal species can tolerate vigorous mixing and you will need to know or experiment to create the best algae growing conditions.

Temperature The optimal temperature for phytoplankton cultures is generally between 20 and 24°C, although this may vary with the composition of the culture medium, the species and strain cultured. Most commonly cultured species of micro-algae tolerate temperatures between 16 and 27°C. Temperatures lower than 16°C will slow down growth, whereas those higher than 35°C are lethal for a number of species. If necessary, algal cultures can be cooled by a flow of cold water over the surface of the culture vessel or by controlling the air temperature with refrigerated air - conditioning units.

Salinity Marine phytoplankton are extremely tolerant to changes in salinity. The best algae growing conditions for most species is at a salinity level that is slightly lower than that of their native habitat, which is obtained by diluting sea water with tap water. Salinities of 20-24 g.l-1 have been found to be optimal. 

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